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Stone Info


The Materials
From the water smoothly formed and polished river pebbles, coarse and fine volcanic rocks, shimmering sand, marble and much more. The variety of materials, colors and finishes is almost limitless, the tactile experience of the rocks are offered a world unto itself, each mosaic of our company is a specialty.

Please note that these are natural materials that vary in shape and color, so we advise to always order in larger quantities, the total required quantity of a batch.

In addition, changing the stones depending on the absorbency and surface low to very much your color and are not always appropriate for all applications such as Shower, sauna or outdoor application. There are impregnating the stones to make less sensitive to those available in matt, satin and shiny.

The Production
The individual stones of our goods are sorted according to thickness, colors, sizes and structures, while up to 8 times for particle sizes and heights using stencil and then moved in a careful hand with small remaining gap dimensions like a puzzle, glued on networks. The cheaper Chinese goods are processed by machines, here you have to reckon with reductions in quality.

The carrier network of our mosaic is made rot-proof, Broad plastic to make a good connection between the stone material of the adhesive and the substrate required to ensure and thus provides a good quality of workmanship for the user.

Prepared in this way can the individual mats similar transfer of a normal tile. Nevertheless, the laying of natural stone mosaics requires a skilled hand and experience in dealing with natural stone.

The Interlocking System
The edges of our gravel and broken stone mosaics are redesigned. The formerly straight-toothed edges gave way to the "Interlock" - Edge, the perfect resort in laying into each other and avoid straight lines in the laying pattern. The careful integration ensures a homogeneous, flat installation without disturbing "seams".

The close tolerance of the gap dimensions to our product fills the gaps avoid oversize material. Each tile is carefully combined with the aid of precise patterns of individual stones by hand and only when there is a decent picture glued to the carrier network.

In addition to the small gap dimensions, the height differences of individual stones are pre-selected to ensure a uniform surface. The color nuances of the individual stones are composed into a visually appealing image. At this point, uses the experience and craftsmanship of our employees in production.

However, we have a proper quality control on site to deliver the goods here too appealing.

Description of the types of stone
Our stone objects, sculptures and figurines are real stone products. Paras, Balinese, Javanese Blackstone and Greenstone are obtained in quarries. From the massive stone blocks suggest sculptors time-consuming manual work in their figures and sculptures.

Through the artistic process and the distinctive structure and color of each stone block stone objects differ in shape, color and dimensions. The manuscript of the sculptor and the naturally-grown accents of stone making each sculpture unique.

White Paras
The so-called paras putih is limestone, and usually comes from Bali. Because of its fine texture and soft consistency, it is relatively easy to edit.

Balinese sculptors have developed during the processing of white Paras to Buddhist and Hindu sculptures true mastery. Impress your Buddha images with fine lines of clothing and hand position (mudra), and with a facial expression that radiates peace and serenity. Each sculpture is handmade and unique.

White Paras is also used for landings and decorative pedestals. White Paras is not frost resistant and only suitable for indoor and dry outdoor use e.g. a covered terrace.

Grey Paras
Also a Balinese sandstone, grey in color. Even grey Paras is characterized by fine, soft texture and is easy to edit. Balinese sculptors turn them into a variety of traditional sculptures and figurines for guard houses and temples.

In warm, humid tropical climate is grey Paras quickly covered with moss and ferns. The sculptures will receive the charm of old temple pieces that awakens all the style differences jungle overgrow reminiscences of old temples in India or Cambodia.

The house and temple architecture is combined with red tiles grey Paras, the so-called Bali style. These specially trained artists carved from grey stone Paras figurines, ornaments and floral decorations. Bali style house is decorated facades, staircases, doorways and walls of the temple.

Grey Paras is only partially resistant to frost engage, for outdoor use, we recommend the property with mineral oil or with a colorless impregnation for plaster, concrete and mineral building materials.

Paras Taro and Paras Kerobokan
A typical Balinese stone material to be produced from the larger objects such as decorative planters, sacrificial shrines or guardian statues. In architecture, it is also used for the cladding of house fronts and foundations.

Powdered stone from the area of Paras taro or Kerobokan is mixed with cement and poured into blocks. After curing trained masons to beat it by hand, the stone object.

Objects from Paras Taro and Paras Kerobokan, and are therefore not a handcrafted stone casting it works, each one unique. The color can vary from cream and pink on grey-green and grey-blue to dark grey and almost black. Through the grainy, slightly coarser structure is achieved very nice effects.

Paras Taro and Paras Kerobokan are only moderately frost-resistant for outdoor use, we recommend engaging the object with mineral oil or a colorless impregnation for plaster, concrete and mineral materials.

Black Stone
Very hard lavastone from Java, which is produced as a stone block. From the rough blocks suggest traditionally trained sculptor in Central and East Java, Buddhist and Hindu sculptures in top quality. Figurines, busts and heads of Buddha, Shiva, Ganesh, Tara and Dewi Sri testify to the still vital influences of the great Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms of Java.

Each figure is really quite unique and very special bears the signature of the artist. Because of its hardness, Blackstone is very laborious and tedious to edit. At a large figure, an artist working for several weeks. That makes sculptures from Blackstone valuable and expensive.

The sculptures can be left natural or are conclusively brown-black patina. The patina changes or decreases over time, and the stone can be seen. The figure give it a more "weathered" look. This is no reason for complaints. If you want to reduce this effect, we recommend to treat the character with a suitable stone retardants. Lava is frost-proof and can overwinter outdoors.

Green Stone (Basanit)
Also a lava from Java, dark green. Greenstone is a little less harsh than Blackstone, but also its processing requires time and experience. From the massive blocks of Javanese Greenstone Quarries arising under the hand of the sculptor masterfully crafted sculptures of Buddha and Hindu gods and heroes.

The Buddha images are often inspired by models from the central of  Javanese Borobudur temple complex, and can achieve monumental size. Each sculpture bears the signature of the artist and is absolutely unique.

The sculptures can be left natural or are conclusively brown-black patina. The patina changes or decreases over time, and the stone can be seen. The figure give it a more "weathered" look. This is no reason for complaints. If you want to reduce this effect, we recommend to treat the character with a suitable stone retardants.

Lava is frost-proof and can overwinter outdoors.

Lavastone Casting
Stone dust from pulverized lava rock is mixed with binders such as cement and poured into silicone molds. After drying, the casting seams be reworked by hand.

The quality of stonecasting objects is heavily dependent on the quality of the mold. High-quality cast sculptures are characterized by the fact that the casting seams are completely invisible. Lavastone Casting is usually concluded patina. Lavastone Casting is frost proof and suitable for outdoor use, with the years may change the patina. You can reprocess with commercial glazes.

River Stone
The figures which are used in Riverstone is also mined in Java. The stone is very hard, the color is light grey and is reminiscent of granite. The stones are found in rivers, and are significantly more expensive due to their hardness and the more elaborate reductions as a black lava rock or Basanit.

Care tips for stone objects and casting figures
When it freezes, some types of stone can crack. Therefore, the best dry stone objects in the house, or at least under a roof over winter.

If this is not possible, we recommend that you engage the object with mineral oil or with a colorless impregnation for plaster, concrete and mineral building materials. Thereafter, the object should also be able to stay outside in winter. Please understand, if we can not guarantee it.

Notes
All the products we supply natural stone tiles, sculptures, fountains, etc., are in different shapes and sizes and different types of stone available. Since we can work with natural materials that vary in shape and color.

We are also specialize in custom in different sizes, shapes and materials and we can also manufacture your own creations or designs. We are constantly on the spot to lead even the monitoring of production and physical checks through.

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Indonesia Natural Stone

Indonesia is considered as one of the main source for unique Natural Stone. Throughout the Indonesia Archipelago, there are many types of Natural Stone could be found. Through its uniqueness in design, style, and sizes, the Indonesia Natural Stone is widely used world wide for interior and exterior finish. Indonesia Natural Stone Blog, will provide you the most update source of Natural Stone Information, and provide detail information on Indonesia Natural Stone manufacturer and importer.

Was ist Stein?

What is stone? The Oxford English Dictionary defines stone as "A piece of rock or hard mineral substance (other than metal), of small to moderate size". One of the most commonly used terms related to geology it derives from stan (Old English) and steinn (Old Norse). In the Gaelic it is clach.

The formation of sedimentary rocks was described in 1802, by Professor John Playfair, uncle to architect William, and friend of James Hutton, founder of modern geology. The notable 19th century Scottish geologist Sir Archibald Geikie eloquently commented on the process of transition from unconsolidated sediment to sedimentary rock: "If you take a quantity of mud, and place it under a weight which will squeeze the water out of it, you will find that it gets firmer. You can thus harden it by pressure. Again, if you place some sand under water which has been saturated with lime or iron, or with some other mineral that can be dissolved in water, you will notice that as the water slowly evaporates it deposits its dissolved material round the grains of sand and binds them together. Were you to continue this process long enough, adding more of the same kind of water as evaporation went on, you would convert the loose sand into a solid stone."

This is essentially the process of lithification (derived from the Greek word lithos - a rock). Thus in a sedimentary basin through compaction by the weight of overlying strata and by cementation by mineralised fluids so sedimentary rocks are formed. In contrast, igneous rocks are usually consolidated by crystallization of minerals from molten material either within the earth's crust (e.g. granites) or at the surface (e.g. basalt lavas). As their name suggests metamorphic rocks have been transformed (recrystallised) from the original rock by a combination of heat and pressure. In these circumstances, new minerals sometimes form.

Slate Information

Slate is formed through metamorphism, a process in which the tiny elements that make up a rock are pushed closer together to form a crystalline structure, also known as recrystallization of the stone. This all occurs while the stone is in a solid state, and the materials that make up the stone are not changed, they are merely repositioned to be closer to one another in a crystal pattern. Metamorphism can be caused by heat or pressure. The materials which undergo this transformation to form slate are generally a shale type sedimentary rock.

Slate forms in layers that easily cleave off in thin lines, generally known as Slaty Cleavage. During formation the original sedimentary rocks are forced down into these plains due to immense pressure. The resulting slate can be comprised of many different beds of sedimentary rock, all of which are now reoriented in the same direction.

While slate is generally a grey or grey-blue color, it can also have multicolored effects in its surface. These come from the various different beds of sedimentary rock from which it is derived, often making this material a contrast of hues.

Slate is most commonly used for roofing because it can be sliced into thin layers. It is also very popular in flooring, countertops, and architectural applications, due to its durability, its natural beauty, and it's relatively low cost. Its clefted surface makes it slip resistant, causing it to be popular in kitchens, bathrooms, and restaurants, as well as public hallways and other high traffic areas. It is also used in decorative home furnishing, fish tanks, and even in novel accessories such as board games.

Slate is found naturally in mountains. When it is quarried, it is usually done so in large blocks known as slabs. These blocks are then chopped up into smaller slabs for distribution. The size of the slab they can make is dependent on the relative strength of the type of slate. The inherent layering of this material makes some rather large sizes difficult to maintain and keep from cracking.

In stores, slate is generally available in tiles of various sizes including 16X16, 12X12, 8X8 as well as in slabs of various sizes, usually running to about 80 inches in length. Installations are generally done with mortar backing to even out varying thicknesses. Then grout lines are run along the joints of the stones. It is important to adequately seal and protect all tiles before grouting them.

As discussed previously, stone was formed from different types of natural minerals. Marble's main consistency is calcium. Calcium carbonate is the natural source that bonds the stone. Certain additive minerals blended in to the calcium during formation to customize these brilliant colors. The additive minerals are also color developers present in granite and other natural stones.

Stone Color - Mineral
Black Biotite, Hornblende, Carbon
Brown Limonite
Gray Variety of minerals
Green Mica, Chloride, Silicate
Red Hematite
White Feldspar, Calcite, Dolomite
Yellow Limonite

Mineral - Mineral Color
Augite Brown, Green, Black, Purple
Biotite Black, Brown, Green
Calcite Pearlenscent and Pale Colors
Dolomite Colorless, Pink, Pale Brown
Feldspar Yellow, White, Pink, Green, Grey
Hematite Metallic Grey or Black
Hornblende Green, Yellow, Brown, Black
Limonite Black, Brown, or Yellow
Sulphur Pale Gold

Minerals have a variety of crystalline properties. A different property has a different color. For instance, Augite (listed above) has different crystalline properties. Each property has its own color. Stones brilliant colors and various crystal formations developed when different mineral properties blended together along with the integration of temperature and pressure.

The veins and color grains of marble were liquid minerals that flowed through the stone when the Earth heated up. The intense heat softened the limestone to allow the liquids to flow through it. When the Earth cooled, the mineral flow stopped and gradually hardened to its current state.

The delicate colors of stone can often be altered by the improper use of cleaning chemicals, mopping with dirty solution, using chemicals that are not designed for stone care, and sunlight can fade the color of natural minerals.

Stone Surface & Textures

There are many different types of stone available today. When stone is ordered, it is fabricated with a particular type of surface. There are six main types of surfaces that are selected:

Honed
Provides a flat to low sheen gloss. Different levels of gloss can be selected. This surface is very smooth, but often very porous. This texture is common in high traffic buildings. Honed floors should always be protected with Stoneguard Penetrating Sealer because it has wide-open pores. Honed stone colors are not as vibrant as a polished stone.

Polished
A glossy surface that wears away with time due to heavy foot traffic and using improper maintenance procedures. This surface is very smooth and not very porous. The reflectivity of polished crystals brings out the brilliant colors and grains of natural stone. The shine comes from the natural reflection of the stone's crystals. The polish is provided by polishing bricks and polishing powders that are used during fabrication. The shine is not from a coating.

Flamed
A rough surface that is developed through intense heat. During fabrication, the stone is heated up and the crystals begin to pop, thus forming a rough surface. This surface is very porous and must be treated with Stoneguard.

Tumbled
A slightly rough texture that is achieved by tumbling small pieces of marble, limestone, and sometimes granite to achieve an archaic/worn appearance. It often requires an application of Stone Color Enhancer to bring out the colors.

Sand Blasted
This surface is the result of a pressurized flow of sand and water that provides a textured surface with a matte gloss.

Hammered
A pounding action that develops a textured surface. The degree of roughness can be selected.

Hardness of Stone

Marble is a relatively soft stone. On a measurement of hardness (MOHS), marble is approximately a three out of ten. Marble is made of calcium, just like your teeth. If you eat something to hard you will break your tooth. If you eat a lot of sugar you will get a cavity. Stone reacts the same way. If an improper chemical is applied to the surface, corrosion will begin to form cavities in the stone.

Listed below is the famous Measurement of Hardness (MOH) Scale for stone. This is a guide developed in the 1800's which helps evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the stone being used. For example, softer stones would require the use of a less active chemical and a more frequent dust mopping program.

1. Talc
2. Gypsum
3. Calcite (Most Marbles)
4. Fluorite
5. Apatite
6. Feldspar (Granite)
7. Quartz (Granite)
8. Topaz
9. Corundum
10. Diamond

The objective of the MOH Scale is to measure stones resistance to hardness. When sediment and grit are harder than the surface, they will scratch and harm the stone. For example, a piece of hard plastic is about a 2.0. It will not scratch #3 Calcite (Marble). However, a piece of sand that measures a 6, will scratch #3 Calcite but will not scratch #7 Quartz which is Granite. The harder the stone, the more resistant it is to abrasion. Exterior sediment that is tracked in to buildings approximately measures from 3.0 to 7.0.

Types of Stone

The familiar stone types that are used today are identified through 4 categories:
1. SEDIMENTARY
2. METAMORPHIC
3. IGNEOUS STONE
4. MAN-MADE

SEDIMENTARY stone came from organic elements such as glaciers, rivers, wind, oceans, and plants. Tiny sedimentary pieces broke off from these elements and accumulated to form rock beds. They were bonded through millions of years of heat and pressure. Types of sedimentary stone:

LIMESTONE
Mainly consists of calcite. It does not show much graining or crystalline structure. It has a smooth granular surface. Varies in hardness. Some dense limestones can be polished. Common colors are black, grey, white, yellow or brown. It is more likely to stain than marble. Limestone is known to contain lime from sea water.

SANDSTONE
Is a very durable formation of quartz grains (sand). Usually formed in light brown or red colors. Categorized by the most popular sandstone bonding agents such as silica, calcium, clay, and iron oxide.

SOAPSTONE
A very soft stone made of a variety of talc. It is a dense mineral that wears well and is often resistant to stains.

FOSSILSTONE
Considered a limestone that contains natural fossils such as sea shells and plants.

TRAVERTINE
Usually a cream or reddish color. It is formed through the accumulation of calcite from hot springs. It contains lots of holes that were formed from water flowing through the stone. These holes are often filled with synthetic resins or cements. Requires lots of maintenance if the holes are not filled. Classified as a limestone and a marble.

METAMORPHIC stone originates from a natural change from one type of stone to another type through the mixture of heat, pressure, and minerals. The change may be a development of a crystalline formation, a texture change, or a color change. Types of metamorphic stone:

MARBLE
A recrystallized limestone that formed when the limestone softened from heat and pressure and recrystallized into marble where mineral changes occurred. The main consistency is calcium and dolomite. Ranges in many colors and is usually heavily veined and shows lots of grains. Hardness rates from 2.5 to 5 on the MOH Scale.
Marble is classified into three categories: (Stone World)
Dolomite: If it has more than 40% magnesium carbonate.
Magnesian: If it has between 5% and 40% magnesium carbonate.
Calcite: If it has less than 5% magnesium carbonate.

SLATE
A fine grained metamorphic stone that formed from clay, sedimentary rock shale, and sometimes quartz. Very thin and can break easily. Usually black, grey, or green.

SERPENTINE
Identified by its marks which look like the skin of a serpent. Most popular colors are green and brown. Hardness rates from 2.5 to 4 on the MOH Scale. Contains serpentine minerals has lots of magnesium, and has an igneous origin. Does not always react well to recrystallization or diamond polishing.

IGNEOUS stones are mainly formed through volcanic material such as magma. Underneath the Earths surface, liquid magma cooled and solidified. Mineral gases and liquids penetrated into the stone and created new crystalline formations with various colors. Types of igneous stone:

GRANITE
Primarily made of Quartz (35%), Feldspar (45%) and Potassium. Usually has darker colors. Contains very little calcite, if any. Provides a heavy crystalline and granular appearance with mineral grains. It is very hard material and easier to maintain than marble. Yet, it is still porous and will stain. There are different types of granite depending on the percentage mix of quartz, mica and feldspar. Black granite is known as an Anorthosite. It contains very little quartz and feldspar and has a different composition than true granite.

MAN-MADE Stones are derived of unnatural mixtures such resin or cement with the additive of stone chips. Types of Man-Made stone:

TERRAZZO
Marble and granite chips embedded in a cement composition.

AGGLOMERATE or CONGLOMERATE
Marble chips embedded in a colored resin composition.

CULTURED or FAUX MARBLE
A mix of resins that are painted or mixed with a paint to look like marble.

History of Natural Stone
Stone is a natural solid formation of one or many minerals. There are thousands of types of stone that have been quarried through the centuries. Quarries are located all around the world. A majority of natural stone comes from Italy, Spain, Turkey, United States, Mexico, China, Taiwan, India, Greece, Canada, France, and Brazil.

The minerals in stone came from the same liquid and gas minerals that formed the earth. The Earth developed as a massive body of gas and liquid minerals that slowly cooled and condensed to a solid core. Through pressure, the Earth's crust began to form and heavy minerals were forced down to the core of the Earth where they were trapped. As the crust got thicker, it squeezed around the inner core which created intense pressure and heat from within the Earth. Crystals and other solid forms began to grow from the mineral vapors that were being released. As the Earth's crust began to expand and erode, heat and pressure pushed the solid minerals up to the Earth's surface which formed colossal rock beds. It took up to one-hundred million years to form some of these beds. Many of the beds are now used as quarries where the stone is mined

Most of these minerals can be identified by their color, hardness, and crystal formation. Crystals come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The wide array of these minerals are often difficult to identify. Many stones look very similar to each other; however, they are all very different.

It is imperative to know the exact type of stone that is to be maintained. Stone is natural and may have adverse reactions to certain cleaning chemicals and procedures. Most stones are also natural alkalis and so are dirt and soil; therefore, stone and dirt are attracted to each other which often makes cleaning very difficult. This makes the proper selection of cleaning procedures and chemicals for stone very complex.

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